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Updated 1 December, 2004

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2003 
Addressing the Challenge of Global Climate Change 
     
Paula J. Dobriansky, Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs: "Therefore it is our intention to implement policies that will foster these technology-based solutions -- that is the way we will address the challenge of global climate change. Significantly, we also believe that climate change should not be pursued in isolation, but should be handled as an integral part of a broad strategic paradigm of sustainable development, which features a balanced mix of environmentally sound, pro-economic growth policies. At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and at the COP-8 meeting last year in New Delhi, we found strong and growing support for this position among developing countries." (64KB PDF file)
 
 
Atmospheric Levels of Methane Stabilizing 
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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports that atmospheric concentrations of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have begun to level out after two centuries of increases. Methane levels have been constant for four years now, but scientists are not certain why the steady increases of the gas in the atmosphere since the dawn of the industrial age have stopped. One theory is that a decrease in fossil fuel production in the former Soviet Union may account for the decline. About 70 percent of methane emissions are connected with human activities -- the burning of fossil fuels, intestinal gas from livestock and farm animals, and the cultivation of rice paddies. (14KB PDF file)
 
 
Black Soot and Snow: A Warmer Combination 
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New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way sunlight reflects off snow. According to a computer simulation, black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century. (78KB PDF file)
 
 
Bush Administration's Actions on Global Climate Change 
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In February 2002, the President committed the United States to a national goal to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of the American economy by 18 percent over the next 10 years. Meeting this commitment is predicted to prevent more than 500 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent emissions through 2012. Included in the President's announcement were directives to his cabinet to implement a broad range of domestic and international actions. These actions are underway and are outlined in the fact sheet. (26KB PDF file)
 
 
Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion 
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Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOX (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone concentration can have a significant impact on human health and the environment. (209 KB PDF file)
 
 
Clean Coal Conference, November 17, 2003 
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Remarks by Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham: "The United States is today in the process of implementing and enacting President Bush's far-reaching national energy policy – a policy that will help guarantee our nation's energy security by ensuring supplies of dependable, affordable and environmentally sound energy for the future..." (38KB PDF file)
 
Climate Change Research and Development FY 2004 Budget 
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To advance and bring focus to short term objectives of climate change science, the Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI) was created by the President in 2002. The budget proposed $40 million for CCRI in 2003, and in 2004 this is increased by 355 percent to $182 million. The CCRI investment will develop resources to support policy making, provide computer resources for climate modeling for decision support studies, and enhance observations and data management for a climate observing system. (271KB PDF file)
 
 
Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions 
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This U.S. National Research Council report provides policy makers with a succinct and balanced overview of what science can currently say about the potential for future climate change, while outlining the uncertainties that remain in our scientific knowledge. (308KB PDF file)
 
 
Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 - 29 Oct 03 
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Congressional debate regarding the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 to provide for a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change, to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States by establishing a market-driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances that could be used interchangeably with passenger vehicle fuel economy standard credits, to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States and reduce dependence upon foreign oil, and ensure benefits to consumers from the trading in such allowances. (208KB PDF file)
 
 
Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 - 30 Oct 03 
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Congressional debate regarding the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 to provide for a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change, to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States by establishing a market-driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances that could be used interchangeably with passenger vehicle fuel economy standard credits, to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States and reduce dependence upon foreign oil, and ensure benefits to consumers from the trading in such allowances. (216KB PDF file)
 
 
Climate, Voluntary Innovative Sector Initiatives: Opportunities Now 
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Climate VISION directly responds to President Bush's announcement made nearly one year ago, Feb. 14, 2002, to address the long-term challenge of global climate change. As part of this strategy, he committed to reducing America's greenhouse gas intensity - the ratio of emissions to economic output - by 18 percent during the next decade, and challenged American businesses and industries to undertake broader efforts to help meet that goal. Climate VISION is part of the global climate change strategy to work with energy partners to meet the President's greenhouse gas intensity goals. Climate VISION represents a beginning to seek greater reductions and the participation of other industry sectors going forward. (20KB PDF file)
 
 
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001: Executive Summary (January 2003) 
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This annual report is prepared by the US Department of Energy / Energy Information Administration's Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, pursuant to requirements under Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 1605(a) of EPACT requires that the EIA, "shall develop, based on data available to, and obtained by the Energy Information Administration, an inventory of national aggregate emissions of each greenhouse gas for each calendar year of the baseline period of 1987 through 1990. The Administrator of the Energy Information Administration shall annually update and analyze such inventory using available data." The first report in this series, "Emissions of Greenhouse Gases 1985-1990," was published in September 1993. This report-the ninth annual report, as required by law, presents the Energy Information Administrations' latest estimates of emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. (77KB PDF file)
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and Its Interaction with Climate Change (2003 progress report) 
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Pursuant to Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer under the Auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel reported that ozone depletion, which caused increased surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, consequently affected living organisms and also materials. New studies had confirmed and strengthened previous findings that UV-B radiation had serious adverse effects on the skin, eyes and immune system. Also, interactions between ozone depletion and climate change had environmental consequences, and the Panel had warned that ultraviolet damage to phytoplankton and other marine organisms might reduce the oceans' capacity as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and so increase global warming. (45KB PDF file)
 
 
Evidence of Global Warming Effects 
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Global warming effects seen in animal and plant worlds. Strongest evidence of global warming provided in new research study. Study finds adjustments in habitats and breeding behaviors. (19KB PDF file)
 
 
FutureGen - A Carbon Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative 
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The integrated sequestration and hydrogen research initiative is a $1 billion government/industry partnership to design, build and operate a nearly emission-free, coal-fired electric and hydrogen production plant. The 275-megawatt prototype plant will serve as a large-scale engineering laboratory for testing new clean power, carbon capture, and coal-to-hydrogen technologies. (392KB PDF file)
 
 
Global Climate Change: September 2003 Update 
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This Congressional Research Service (CRS) report briefly reviews the status of climate science, international negotiations, and congressional activity focused specifically on climate change. It does not attempt to include the wide range of energy issues also relevant to climate change. These are covered in other CRS reports on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy generally. (92KB PDF file)
 
 
India to Host Climate Technology Bazaar Nov 10-13 
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International representatives will gather in New Delhi November 10-13 for the Climate Technology Bazaar and workshops on how to anticipate or adjust to climate change. According to a media note released by the U.S. State Department November 5, Harlan L. Watson, the State Department's senior climate negotiator, will lead the U.S. delegation to the bazaar, which will gather 120 national and international exhibitors of "state of the art" climate-friendly technologies, and about 5,000 visitors. (40KB PDF file)
 
 
Lieberman-McCain Global Warming Legislation 
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This legislation aims to cap greenhouse gas emissions and use market forces to ease global warming. (17KB PDF file)
 
 
Our Changing Planet: The Fiscal Year 2003 U.S. Global Change Research Program and Climate Change Research Initiative 
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A report by the Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research as a supplement to the President's FY 2003 budget. (1.7MB PDF file)
 
 
Questions and Answers About the Stratospheric Ozone Layer 
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To help foster a continued interaction, this component of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002" presents 20 questions and answers about the often complex science of ozone depletion. The questions address the nature of atmospheric ozone, the chemicals that cause ozone depletion, how global and polar ozone depletion occur, and what could lie ahead for the ozone layer. The answers are based on the information presented in the 2002 and earlier Assessment reports. These reports and the answers provided here were all prepared and reviewed by a large international group of scientists. (2.1MB PDF file)
 
 
Sen. McCain Calls for National Action on Climate Change 
     
Arizona senator's op-ed article in The Wall Street Journal: This column by John McCain, Republican senator from Arizona and chairman of the Senate's Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, was published in The Wall Street Journal October 30 and is in the public domain. (16KB PDF file)
 
 
Significant U.S. Weather and Climate Events for 2003 
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Greater heat, more hurricanes stir 2003 weather. NOAA reports 2003 was marked by contrasting conditions across the United States while global temperatures remain high. (18KB PDF file)
 
 
Statement of David W. Conover Before House Science Committee 
     
As part of the President's National Climate Change Technology Initiative, launched on June 11, 2001, the President directed the Secretary of Energy, in coordination with the Secretary of Commerce and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, to lead a multi-agency review of the Federal R&D portfolio and make recommendations. The Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) was established in 2002 to implement the President's Initiative. The CCTP is a multi-agency research and development (R&D) coordination activity, organized under the auspices of the Cabinet-level Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI). Participating Federal agencies include the Departments of Energy, Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Health and Human Services, Interior, State, and Transportation, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation. (56KB PDF file)
 
 
Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S. and Caribbean 
     
A new study says that trade wind dust transported from West Africa can have significant implications for climate, atmospheric quality and public health in the Caribbean and the southeastern United States. A November 7 press release says results of the study, reported by researchers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and published in the November 7 issue of the journal Science, show that trade wind dust transported from West Africa to Barbados in the eastern Caribbean is strongly linked to rainfall patterns in West Africa. The study says decreased rainfall in Africa results in a sharp increase in dust transported across the Atlantic the following year. (16KB PDF file)
 
 
Summary of the Ninth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 
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The ninth Conference of the Parties (COP-9) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the nineteenth sessions of the COP's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) were held at the Fiera Milan Congress Center in Milan, Italy, from 1-12 December 2003. (388KB PDF file)
 
 
Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors 
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Based on research to date, we can state some expectations about terrestrial ecosystem response as several elements of global climate change develop in coming decades. Higher plant species will vary considerably in their response to elevated UV-B radiation, but the most common general e.ects are reductions in height of plants, decreased shoot mass if ozone reduction is severe, increased quantities of some phenolics in plant tissues and, perhaps, reductions in foliage area. In some cases, the common growth responses may be lessened by increasing CO2 concentrations. However, changes in chemistry of plant tissues will generally not be reversed by elevated CO2. Among other things, changes in plant tissue chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B may reduce consumption of plant tissues by insects and other herbivores, although occasionally consumption may be increased. Pathogen attack on plants may be increased or decreased as a consequence of elevated UV-B, in combination with other climatic changes. This may be a.ected both by alterations in plant chemistry and direct damage to some pathogens. Water limitation may decrease the sensitivity of some agricultural plants to UV-B, but for vegetation in other habitats, this may not apply. With global warming, the repair of some types of UV damage may be improved, but several other interactions between warming and enhanced UV-B may occur. For example, even though warming may lead to fewer killing frosts, with enhanced UV-B and elevated CO2 levels, some plant species may have increased sensitivity to frost damage. (230KB PDF file)
 
 
Testimony of Dr. James Mahoney before the US Senate Commerce Committee 
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Dr. Mahoney appeared before the US Senate Commerce Committee in his capacity as Director of the US Climate Change Science Program. He presented testimony on the Administration's November 2002 "Discussion Draft Strategic Plan" for federal research on climate change, and on the workshop on the draft plan held in Washington, DC, on 3-5 December 2002.
 
 
The Bush Administration's Actions on Global Climate Change 
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The Bush Administration has delivered on the President's commitment with a comprehensive, innovative program of domestic and international initiatives -- September 2003 update. (30KB pdf file)
 
 
The State of Climate Science: October 2003 
     
Two years have elapsed since the publication of the most recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the National Research Council (NRC) on the state of the science of climate change and its impacts on the United States and the rest of the world. As scientists engaged in research on these subjects, we are writing to confirm that the main findings of these documents continue to represent the consensus opinion of the scientific community. Indeed, these findings have been reinforced rather than weakened by research reported since the documents were released. (1.2MB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Climate Change Policy 
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September 30, 2003: The Bush Administration has delivered on the President's commitment with a comprehensive, innovative program of domestic and international initiatives. "I've asked my advisors to consider approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including those that tap the power of markets, help realize the promise of technology and ensure the widest-possible global participation...our actions should be measured as we learn more from science and build on it. Our approach must be flexible to adjust to new information and take advantage of new technology. We must always act to ensure continued economic growth and prosperity for our citizens and for citizens throughout the world." (64KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Companies Launch Initiatives to Combat Climate Change 
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U.S. firms are creating trading programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A growing number of U.S. corporations and states are taking actions aimed at sharply reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that trap heat within the Earth's atmosphere. (19KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Industry Initiatives Aim to Reduce Greenhouse Gas 
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A February 12 Department of Energy fact sheet lists the initiatives being undertaken by major business and industrial sectors of the U.S. economy to meet President Bush's challenge to reduce America's greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent over the next decade. (23KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Officials Say Plans Continue for Earth Observation System 
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U.S. officials say plans are moving forward to create a system that links thousands of satellites, aircraft and Earth-based monitoring stations around the globe to provide more accurate predictions of climate change, crop production, disease outbreaks and natural hazards. (33KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Plans for Pollution-Free Power Plant 
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U.S. officials have announced a public-private effort to construct a prototype electric and hydrogen production plant and the formation of a new international forum to advance carbon capture and storage technologies as ways to reduce the world's heat-trapping greenhouse gas emissions. (18KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Praises India for Climate Change Partnership 
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Harlan Watson, the U.S. senior climate negotiator and special representative, praised India for its cooperation with the United States in advancing the science and technology of climate change. "Our bilateral partnership with India is particularly important because it allows us to share experiences and knowledge to advance climate change science and technology," Watson said in a conference on U.S.-India Cooperation on Climate Change in New Delhi November 11. (34KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Pursuing Clean Coal Projects with Other Countries 
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U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham says the United States is moving ahead in an unprecedented international effort to make clean energy the cornerstone of economic growth, improved health and closer ties among nations. (47KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S.-China Working Group on Climate Change Announces Cooperative Research and Analysis 
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An official multi-agency U.S. delegation in China released a statement January 16 announcing that the United States and Chinese governments have agreed to cooperate on a broad range of climate change science and technology activities. According to the statement issued by the U.S. side of the U.S.-China Working Group on Climate Change, the two countries have identified 10 areas for cooperative research and analysis: non-CO2 gases, adaptation strategies, economic/environmental modeling, integrated assessment of potential consequences of climate change, hydrogen and fuel cell technology, carbon capture and sequestration, observation/measurement, institutional partnerships, energy/environment project follow-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), and existing clean energy protocols/annexes. (26KB PDF file)
 
 
UN/WMO Calls for Timely Global Action on Climate Change 
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On 20 March 2003, Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Godwin O.P. Obasi said all nations need to work together to prevent and mitigate the adverse impact of climate-related events, such as floods, droughts and tropical cyclones. (18KB PDF file)
 
 
United States and European Union Joint Meeting on Climate Change Science and Technology Research 
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The United States and European Union identified cooperative research activities in the six areas at the first bilateral ¿U.S.-EU Joint Meeting on Climate Change Science and Technology Research¿ held in Washington on February 5-6, 2003: (1) carbon cycle research; (2) aerosol -climate interactions; (3) feedbacks, water vapor and thermohaline circulation; (4) integrated observation systems and data; (5) carbon capture and storage; and (6) hydrogen technology and infrastructure. Other non-greenhouse gas emitting energy sources (e.g., nuclear energy, renewable energies), although not discussed in detail, were mentioned as worthy for cooperation in future discussions. (63KB PDF file)
 
 
United States Global Climate Change Policy 
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The U.S. Department of State has released a summary of the U.S. policy on climate change first announced by the Bush administration in February 2002. The document is issued as U.S. experts joined counterparts from around the world October 23 to convene the annual meeting on the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in New Delhi.
 
 
The United States strategy will set America on a path to slow the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, and -- as the science justifies -- to stop, and then reverse that growth. (63KB PDF file)
 
 
US-Caribbean Climate Change Project Announced 
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The United States is helping finance a project in conjunction with the World Bank's Global Environment Facility (GEF) to counter the destructive effects of global warming in the Caribbean. The "Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change Project" will benefit 12 small island and low-lying countries in the region, the Bank said in an April 18 statement. Those countries are: Antigua & Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. (14KB PDF file)
 
 
2002 
2002 - 2003 Australia - U.S. Climate Action Partnership (CAP) 
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Six specific activities have been identified for the initial phase of the CAP. These projects build on existing collaboration and extend it into new and high priority areas. Each of the selected areas of activity is intended to benefit from joint application of U.S. and Australian expertise, sharing of technology developments and Australia's proximity to key geographic regions in the climate system, such as Antarctica and the Indian and Southern oceans. The cooperation envisaged aims to reduce key uncertainties and improve the capacity of climate change science to inform the policy making process. (38KB PDF file)
 
 
Annual Energy Outlook 2002 with Projections to 2020 
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The Annual Energy Outlook 2002 presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 prepared by the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA). The projections are based on results from EIA¿s National Energy Modeling System. (2.4MB PDF file)
 
 
Aquatic ecosystems: effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors 
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Aquatic ecosystems are a key component of the Earth's biosphere. A large number of studies document substantial impact of solar UV radiation on individual species, yet considerable uncertainty remains with respect to assessing impacts on ecosystems. Several studies indicate that the impact of increased UV radiation appears relatively low when considering overall ecosystem response, while, in contrast, effects on individual species show considerable responses. Ecosystem response to climate variability incorporates both synergistic and antagonistic processes with respect to UV-related effects, significantly complicating understanding and prediction at the ecosystem level. The impact of climate variability on UV-related e.ects often becomes manifest via indirect effects such as reduction in sea ice, changes in water column bio-optical characteristics, changes in cloud cover and shifts in oceanographic biogeochemical provinces. (237KB PDF file)
 
 
Assistant Secretary Turner's May 7 Testimony on Environmental Treaties 
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John F. Turner, Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, discusses six important international agreements that have been submitted to the US Senate for Advice and Consent - the Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention), or the "SPAW Protocol;" the South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP) Agreement; the Niue Boundary Treaty; an amendment to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission; and two amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the "Montreal Amendment" and the "Beijing Amendment." (83KB PDF file)
 
 
Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface 
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Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identi.ed. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. (510KB PDFD file)
 
 
Climate Action Partnership Announced Between Australia and the United States 
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The governments of the United States and Australia announced an agreement to establish a Climate Action Partnership. The agreement was reached following meetings on climate change held in Washington this week between Dr. David Kemp, Australian Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and several senior members of the U.S. Administration. (26KB PDF file)
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Appendix A Emission Trends 
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no description available
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Appendix B Policies and Measures 
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no description available
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Appendix C Technology Transfer 
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Third National Communication of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Selected Technology Transfer Activities and U.S. Direct Financial Contributions and Commercial Sales Related to Implementation of the UNFCCC.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Appendix D Climate Change Science 
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Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions: This National Research Council study originated from a May 11, 2001, White House request to help inform the Administration's review of U.S. climate change policy. In particular, the written request asked for the National Academies' 'assistance in identifying the areas in the science of climate change where there are the greatest certainties and uncertainties,' and 'views on whether there are any substantive differences between the IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] Reports and the IPCC summaries.' In addition, based on discussions with the Administration, a number of specific questions were incorporated into the statement of task for the study.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Appendix E Bibliography 
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Third National Communication of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this U.S. Climate Action Report, the United States provides its third formal national communication under the Framework Convention, as envisioned under Articles 4 and 12 of the Convention. They describe its national circumstances, identify existing and planned policies and measures, indicate future trends in greenhouse gas emissions, outline expected impacts and adaptation measures, and provide information on financial resources, technology transfer, research, and systematic observations.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 
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Chapter 1 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 summarizes the main elements of the report. In this report, the United States provides its third formal national communication under the Framework Convention, as envisioned under Articles 4 and 12 of the Convention. The report describes the national circumstances, identifies existing and planned policies and measures, indicates future trends in greenhouse gas emissions, outlines expected impacts and adaptation measures, and provides information on financial resources, technology transfer, research, and systematic observations.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 2 National Circumstances 
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Chapter 2 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 presents a snapshot of the national characteristics of the United States that play a role in climate change, including the country's climate, geography, economy, demographic trends, energy production and consumption, and natural resources.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 3 Greenhouse Gas Inventory 
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Chapter 3 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 provides a broad overview of all U.S. greenhouse gas emission sources and sinks, introduces key concepts, and discusses the primary drivers for the growth in emissions. All material in the chapter is drawn from the U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 4 Policies and Measures 
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Chapter 4 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 reviews national policies to limit emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases undertaken since 1990.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 5 Projections 
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Chapter 5 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 quantifies the aggregate effects on greenhouse gas emissions of policies and measures implemented or planned from 1990 to 2020.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 6 Vulnerability 
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Third National Communication of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Chapter 6 provides an overview of potential negative and positive impacts and possible response options, based primarily on Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2000). This assessment used historical records, model simulations, and sensitivity analyses to explore our potential vulnerability to climate change and highlighted gaps in our knowledge.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 7 Financial Resources 
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Chapter 7 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 reviews U.S. efforts with other countries to assist with mitigation and sequestration strategies, build human and institutional capacity to address climate change, and facilitate the commercial transfer of technology.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 8 Research and Observation 
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Third National Communication of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The United States leads the world in research on climate and other global environmental changes, funding approximately half of the world's climate change research expenditures. We intend to continue funding research in order to ensure vigorous, ongoing programs aimed at narrowing the uncertainties in our knowledge of climate change. These research programs will help advance the understanding of climate change. The President's major new initiatives directed at addressing climate change are informed by a wealth of input and are intended to result in significant improvements in climate modeling, observation, and research efforts. The long-term vision embraced by the new initiatives is to help government, the private sector, and communities make informed management decisions regarding climate change in light of persistent uncertainties.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Chapter 9 Education Training and Awareness 
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Chapter 9 of the US Climate Action Report 2002 addresses programs to educate and train students and citizens in areas related to climate change and reviews U.S. outreach activities to disseminate information about global climate change.
 
 
Climate Action Report 2002 Cover Page and Table of Contents 
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no description available
 
 
Climate Coordination Announced Between the United States and Canada 
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The governments of the United States and Canada announced an agreement to expand and intensify their existing bilateral efforts to address global climate change. This initiative involves many U.S. agencies and Canadian departments and agencies which are already actively engaged in this issue. (25KB PDF file)
 
 
Confirmation Hearing of James R. Mahoney 
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Opening Statement of James R. Mahoney Before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Nominated to be Assistant Secretary of Commerce For Oceans and Atmosphere: I was born and raised in Syracuse, New York, and I received an outstanding undergraduate education, majoring in physics, at LeMoyne College in my hometown. My career has involved over 40 years of continuous focus on the environmental and earth sciences, with a strong emphasis in the atmospheric, climate, hydrological and oceanographic areas. I have benefited from diverse work responsibilities in academic, corporate, government and international settings. I look forward to applying this experience in helping the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Commerce Department to address their critical national missions.
 
 
CRS Issue Brief for Congress - Global Climate Change 
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There is concern that human activities are affecting the heat/energy-exchange balance between Earth, the atmosphere, and space, and inducing global climate change, often termed "global warming." Human activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace greenhouse gases. If these gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere at current rates, most scientists believe global warming would occur through intensification of Earth's natural heat-trapping "greenhouse effect." Possible impacts might be seen as both positive and negative. (136KB PDF file)
 
 
CRS Issue Brief for Congress - Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  
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The possibility that human activities are releasing gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), at rates that could affect global climate has resulted in proposals for national programs to curtail emissions. An international framework for specific reductions in greenhouse gases was negotiated at a meeting in Kyoto in December 1997. Concern about costs has encouraged consideration of CO2 reduction proposals that employ market-based mechanisms. The passage in 1990 of a tradable allowance system for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in the United States provides a precedent for such mechanisms. (91KB PDF file)
 
 
CRS Issue Brief for Congress - Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections  
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In the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, the U.S. participated in negotiations that ended with agreement on carbon dioxide reductions that could become legally binding. The United States signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, but President Clinton did not se
 
 
Dr. Marburger Before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space Commerce, and Transportation Committee 
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Statement of The Honorable John Marburger, III; Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee; United States Senate; May 22, 2002 to discuss the President's Fiscal Year 2003 budget request for research and development, including climate change research. (17KB PDF file)
 
 
Effects of climate change and UV-B on materials 
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The outdoor service life of common plastic materials is limited by their susceptibility to solar ultraviolet radiation. Of the solar wavelengths the UV-B component is particularly efficient in bringing about photodamage in synthetic and naturally occurring materials. This is particularly true of plastics, rubber and wood used in the building and agricultural industries. Any depletion in the stratospheric ozone layer and resulting increase in the UV-B component of terrestrial sunlight will therefore tend to decrease the service life of these materials.
 
 
Eighteen questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment 
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This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel (http://www.gcrio.org/OnLnDoc/pdf/unepSciQandA.pdf) contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel.
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and Its Interactions with Climate Change: 2002 Assessment 
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The four earlier assessments on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion, between 1989 and 1998, dealt almost exclusively with increasing ultraviolet radiation and its impacts. The present assessment gives an update on these same problems, but with a special emphasis on the interactions with climate change, at the request of the 11th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and climate change are dealt with in separate international conventions. Although both processes are aspects of global atmospheric change, the measures needed for phasing out ozone depleting chemicals and for limiting the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different. Even if separated in this fashion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the two processes have many interactions. For the time period that these two threats co-exist, there is a strong likelihood that their interactions will have consequences for the environment.
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and Its Interactions with Climate Change: 2002 Assessment (UNEP version) 
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The four earlier assessments on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion, between 1989 and 1998, dealt almost exclusively with increasing ultraviolet radiation and its impacts. The present assessment gives an update on these same problems, but with a special emphasis on the interactions with climate change, at the request of the 11th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and climate change are dealt with in separate international conventions. Although both processes are aspects of global atmospheric change, the measures needed for phasing out ozone depleting chemicals and for limiting the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different. Even if separated in this fashion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the two processes have many interactions. For the time period that these two threats co-exist, there is a strong likelihood that their interactions will have consequences for the environment. (3MB PDF file)
 
 
Evolving U.S. Policy on Climate Change 
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Remarks by Mr. Harlan Watson, U.S. Department of State Senior Climate Negotiator and Special Representative, on 14 May 2002. (117KB PDF file)
 
 
Experts Review New U.S. Climate Change Strategy 
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The Climate Change Science Program Planning Workshop held December 3-5 drew participants from the United States and more than 30 other countries to review a draft version of the U.S. climate change research strategy, which sets priorities for the nation's $1,800-million annual multi-agency research program on climate change. The draft strategic plan, issued on November 11, was prepared by 13 federal agencies participating in the administration's Climate Change Science Program.
 
 
Global Climate Change -- Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases 
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The possibility that human activities are releasing gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), at rates that could affect global climate has resulted in proposals for national programs to curtail emissions. An international framework for specific reductions in greenhouse gases was negotiated at a meeting in Kyoto in December 1997. Concern about costs has encouraged consideration of CO2 reduction proposals that employ market-based mechanisms. The passage in 1990 of a tradeable allowance system for sulfur dioxide control in the United States to reduce acid rain provides a precedent for such mechanisms. (93KB PDF file)
 
 
Global Climate Change Policy Book 
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A detailed summary of the President's new approach to the challenge of global climate change. This approach is designed to harness the power of markets and technological innovation (156KB PDF file)
 
 
Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases 
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In February 2002, the Bush Administration initiated a new voluntary greenhouse gas reduction program. Rather than attempting to meet a specific reduction target, the proposal focuses on improving the carbon efficiency of the economy. In November 2001, the Seventh Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change concluded negotiations on implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. With respect to flexible implementation mechanisms, the Parties outlined the institutions that would oversee the flexible implementation mechanisms contained in the Protocol. The Administration announced in March that the Kyoto Protocol was 'dead' as far as it was concerned. However, EPA Administrator Whitman emphasized that the Administration hoped to work constructively with the European Commission to develop technologies and market-based incentives to address global climate change.
 
 
Global Climate Change: Fact Or Fiction? 
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Climate change as an issue for business leaders will not go away. It will increasingly affect the way business is done. But here's the good news: by effectively meeting the challenge of climate change, businesses will also deal effectively with several other issues (energy costs, reliability, and volatility) that affect competitiveness. New business opportunities will very likely be discovered in the process. Forward-looking business managers who approach climate change from this perspective can expect to gain long-term competitive advantage as a result.
 
 
Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases 
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In February 2002, the Bush Administration initiated a new voluntary greenhouse gas reduction program. Rather than attempting to meet a specific reduction target, the proposal focuses on improving the carbon efficiency of the economy. In November 2001, the
 
 
Health effects from stratospheric ozone depletion and interactions with climate change 
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The potential health effects of elevated levels of ambient UV-B radiation are diverse, and it is difficult to quantify the risks, especially as they are likely to be considerably modified by human behaviour. Nevertheless epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that UV radiation is a definite risk factor for certain types of cataract, with peak efficacy in the UV-B waveband. The causal link between squamous cell carcinoma and cumulative solar UV exposure has been well established. New findings regarding the genetic basis of skin cancer, including studies on genetically modified mice, have confirmed the epidemiological evidence that UV radiation contributes to the formation of basal cell carcinomas and cutaneous melanomas. For the latter, animal models have demonstrated that UV exposure at a very young age is more detrimental than exposure in adulthood. Although suppression of certain immune responses has been recognised following UV exposure, the impact of this suppression on the control of infectious and autoimmune diseases is largely unknown. However, studies on several microbial infections have indicated significant consequences in terms of symptoms or reactivation of disease. The possibility that the immune response to vaccination could be depressed by UV-B exposure is of considerable concern. Newly emerging possibilities regarding interactions between ozone depletion and global climate change further complicate the risk assessments for human health but might result in an increased incidence of cataracts and skin cancer, plus alterations in the patterns of certain categories of infectious and other diseases.
 
 
High-Level Meeting on Climate Change Between The United States and The European Union 
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This joint press statement was released on April 23 by the United States and the European Union at the conclusion of a meeting of representatives to the U.S.-EU High Level Dialogue on Climate Change at the Department of State. The U.S. Delegation was headed by: Governor Christie Whitman, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Paula Dobriansky, Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs; and Jim Connaughton, Chairman, Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President. The EU Delegation was headed by: Jaume Matas, Spanish Minister for the Environment (representing the Spanish European Union Presidency) and Margot Wallström, Member of the European Commission. (80KB PDF file)
 
 
Human Interactions with the Carbon Cycle: Summary of a Workshop 
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The workshop, which was held in Washington on November 5, 2001, addressed the following three substantive topics: the future of fossil fuel consumption, carbon implications of future land use/land cover transformation, and modeling human interactions with the carbon cycle. (2MB PDF file)
 
 
Inputs to the Delhi Declaration 
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Harlan L. Watson, Senior Climate Negotiator and Special Representative and Head of the U.S. Delegation. Remarks to the Eighth Session of the Conference of Parties (COP-8) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. New Delhi, India, 25 October 2002.
 
 
Interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on biogeochemical cycles 
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The effects of ozone depletion on global biogeochemical cycles, via increased UV-B radiation at the Earth¿s surface, have continued to be documented over the past 4 years. In this report we also document various effects of UV-B that interact with global climate change because the detailed interactions between ozone depletion and climate change are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions.
 
 
James Mahoney Sworn in as Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere 
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At a Commerce Department ceremony in Washington, D.C., on April 2nd, James R. Mahoney, was sworn in as the assistant secretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere. In this capacity, he is a chief manager of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the nation's top science agency for oceans and the atmosphere under its current administrator Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, USN (ret.). Commerce Secretary Don Evans administered the oath of office. (58.3KB PDF file)
 
 
Ministers Call for Action to Reduce Impacts of Global Warming 
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Delhi Declaration links climate change to sustainable development. Environmental ministers and senior officials from some 170 countries meeting in New Delhi reached agreement on a final resolution that highlights the need for aid to help developing countries adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change. The Eighth Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP-8) to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, held from October 23 to November 1, adopted the so-called Delhi Ministerial Declaration, which calls for strengthening international collaboration on climate change and addressing the issue in the broader context of sustainable development. (32KB PDF file)
 
 
NASA Soot Study 
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Study collects data in China and India - scientists say soot particles can lead to flooding and drought. A new climate study finds that large amounts of soot particles and other pollutants are causing changes in precipitation and temperatures that may be responsible for the tendency toward increased floods and droughts in China and other Asian regions over the last several decades. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) press release says the results of the study, published in the September 27 issue of the journal Science, indicate that black carbon or soot can affect regional climate by absorbing sunlight, heating the air and thereby altering large-scale atmospheric circulation and the hydrologic cycle.
 
 
NASA Study Predicts Warming Even With Emission Redcutions 
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A new study funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) predicts that the world's climate will warm over the next 50 years regardless of whether nations soon curb their greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels. The study found that global temperatures may increase by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius if no reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are made and they continue to increase at the current rate. But if the growth rate of carbon dioxide does not exceed its current rate and if the growth of true air pollutants - substances that are harmful to human health - is reversed, temperatures may rise by only 0.75 degrees Celsius.
 
 
Native Peoples - Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop 
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Final Report of "Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Circles of Wisdom" October 28 - November 1, 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the American Indian Chamber of Commerce of New Mexico, and the City of Albuquerque. (820KB PDF file)
 
 
New Climate Change Science Web Site 
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The U.S. Climate Change Science Program Office, incorporating the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI), recently launched its Web site, http://www.climatescience.gov. The new site will be the main clearinghouse for information on the Bush Administration's interagency climate science initiative -- including its Strategic Plan, which will provide the principal guidance for the U.S. global change and climate change research programs during the next several years.
 
 
NOAA Chief Announces New Funding for Global Climate  
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Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher Jr. USN (Ret.), U.S. undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA administrator on June 11th announced new U.S. funding for the Global Climate Observing System, an international effort to investigate global climate change processes and observations located within the World Meteorological Organization. (59KB PDF file)
 
 
NOAA Head to Promote Climate Science, International Cooperation During European Tour 
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The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) today announced that Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher Jr. USN (ret.), undersecretary of Commerce for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA administrator will meet with senior leaders from European and international ocean, climate and space organizations during a week long trip (June 7-13) to Germany, France, Switzerland and England. The Vice Admiral's main focus for will be promoting international cooperation and support for expanding the present global climate observation system. (66KB PDF file)
 
 
NOAA Vision for Global Observing System 
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Retired Navy Vice Adm. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Ph.D., undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), will describe NOAA's broad vision of the future of global environmental monitoring of the Earth. Lautenbacher will present a talk at the world's aerospace community's once-in-a-decade meeting -- the World Space Congress -- at the George R. Brown Convention Center in Houston October 10-19, 2002.
 
 
Notice of Inquiry and Request for Comment on Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Reductions, and Carbon Sequestration  
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Federal Register Department of Energy Notice: May 6, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 87, pages 30370-30373): Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Reductions, and Carbon Sequestration. (72 KB PDF file)
 
 
Promoting Innovation and Competitiveness: President Bush's Technology Agenda 
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This 2002 Technology Agenda highlights steps President Bush is taking to promote innovation, support entrepreneurship, and empower citizens. "The role of government is not to create wealth; the role of our government is to create an environment in which the entrepreneur can flourish, in which minds can expand, in which technologies can reach new frontiers." (2.8MB PDF file)
 
 
Realism in Cutting Emissions 
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This column by R. Glenn Hubbard, chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, first appeared in the New York Times February 15 and is in the public domain.(91KB PDF file)
 
 
Remarks by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe at Climate Change Workshop 
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NASA is committed over the long haul to developing a flotilla of 26 Earth observing satellites and other technologies that will help provide scientists a solid foundation for understanding the complex Earth climate system. In addition to developing and managing these unique Earth observing systems, NASA will effectively disseminate the data and information it produces, and also will continue to make a significant investment in on-the-ground scientific research. Once NASA has placed its entire constellation of satellites in orbit, NASA will help transition this capability to a sustainable observational system, and will forge ahead in developing additional cutting-edge Earth observational technologies.
 
 
Research Builds Understanding of Earth's Climate 
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U.S. Deputy Secretary of Commerce Sam Bodman told an international meeting of climate scientists and stakeholders at U.S. Climate Change Science Program Workshop that the United States - through an extensive research effort - is leading the world to a better understanding of the Earth's climate system.
 
 
Research on Permanent Storage of Carbon Dioxide Expanded 
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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is moving into a new, expanded phase of its program to develop carbon sequestration projects, including studying the potential of injecting carbon dioxide emissions from power plants into underground aquifers. Carbon dioxide, from the burning of fossil fuels, contributes to global warming. (20KB PDF file)
 
 
Researchers Cite Near-Term Control Strategies for Global Warming 
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While many scientists and policy makers have focused on how heat-trapping greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are altering the global climate, several new studies report that both air pollution and global warming could be significantly reduced by controlling emissions of methane gas and black carbon soot, and limiting activities like urban sprawl and deforestation that cause land surface changes.
 
 
Researchers Say New Farm Practices Will Help Fight Climate Change 
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New program seeks ways to store carbon in agricultural soils. Researchers report that new farm practices and new breeds of crops may provide a way to control carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. According to a July 2 press release, a nine-university consortium has begun a $15-million research program aimed at finding ways to increase the retention of carbon dioxide in agricultural soils and develop new crop plants that help to store carbon -- a process known as carbon sequestration. (23KB PDF file)
 
 
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002 - Executive Summary 
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Since the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998," numerous laboratory investigations, atmospheric observations, and theoretical and modeling studies have produced new key findings and have strengthened overall understanding of the ozone layer, ozone depletion, and its effect on ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These advances are highlighted in this summary of the current understanding of the impact of human activities and natural phenomena on the ozone layer and the coupling of the ozone layer and the climate system. (68KB PDF file)
 
 
Second Meeting of the U.S.-Japan High-Level Consultations on Climate Change 
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In a joint press statement on April 5, the United States and Japan agreed to promote cooperation on reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming through investigation of market incentives, as well identification of promising avenues for research. (25KB PDF file)
 
 
Secretary of Commerce Evans on Climate Change 
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An aggressive new U.S. climate change research strategy, designed to accelerate answers to critical questions about the environment, will be the focus of more than 1,100 experts from throughout the country and the world when they convene in Washington this week. Climate science as a fully understood and universally accepted discipline is still in its infancy. We know that the surface temperature of the Earth has warmed, rising 0.6 degrees Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) over the past century. And the National Academy of Sciences indicates that human activity is a contributing factor to higher concentrations of greenhouse gases.
 
 
Secretary Powell's Remarks at World Summit on Sustainable Development 
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The United States is taking action to meet environmental challenges, including global climate change, not just rhetoric. We are committed to a multi-billion dollar program to develop and deploy advanced technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. (29KB PDF file)
 
 
Testimony Before the Committee on Science U.S. House of Representatives Climate Change Hearings 
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In a statement by Dr. John Marburger, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science on July 10th, it was noted that in a series of clear and public statements, the President of the United States described climate change as a complex, long-term challenge that requires an effective and science-based response. The President acknowledged the responsibility of the United States to lead in dealing with this challenge. (17KB PDF file)
 
 
Testimony of James R. Mahoney Before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, US Senate, 11 July 2002 
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Dr. Mahoney, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, presented testimony about the Administration's scientific research program on global change and climate change. He stated that the status of the entire earth system, including the potential impacts of climate and ecosystem variability (regardless of its origin), is a capstone issue for our generation and will continue to be so for our children. The Administration fully embraces the need to provide the best possible scientific basis for understanding the complex interactions that determine the constantly changing nature of our earth's life systems. Moreover, the Administration is committed to making full use of our best scientific information to determine optimal investments and actions on the global, national and regional scales to mitigate adverse anthropogenic changes, and to adapt to unavoidable natural changes. (172KB PDF file)
 
 
Testimony of James R. Mahoney Before the Committee on Science, US House of Representatives, 10 July 2002 
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Dr. Mahoney, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, presented testimony about the Administration's scientific research program on global change and climate change. He stated that the status of the entire earth system, including the potential impacts of climate and ecosystem variability (regardless of its origin), is a capstone issue for our generation and will continue to be so for our children. The Administration fully embraces the need to provide the best possible scientific basis for understanding the complex interactions that determine the constantly changing nature of our earth's life systems. Moreover, the Administration is committed to making full use of our best scientific information to determine optimal investments and actions on the global, national and regional scales to mitigate adverse anthropogenic changes, and to adapt to unavoidable natural changes.
 
 
U.S. and Korea to Collaborate to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 
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U.S.-Republic of Korea Joint Statement on Enhanced Bilateral Climate Change Cooperation: The Republic of Korea and the United States exchanged views on their policies on global climate change and agreed to enhance their bilateral cooperation. The United States explained the policy announced by President Bush on February 14, 2002, under which the United States is taking action to address climate change to achieve a new and ambitious national goal for reducing projected emissions growth in the next decade. The Republic of Korea reiterated its commitment to the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and stated that it is pursuing the relevant domestic procedures to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Communication and cooperation between the two countries will help to advance both the U.S. and Korean efforts. (16KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. and New Zealand Work to Improve Bilateral Climate Change Cooperation 
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The United States and New Zealand plan to enhance their cooperation in the field of climate change, according to the State Department. In an October 24 joint statement, the State Department said Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs Paula Dobriansky and the Honorable Pete Hodgson, Convenor of New Zealand's Ministerial Group on Climate Change, met in Washington, D.C. to "exchange views on climate change." The two officials agreed to enhance "bilateral dialogue and practical cooperation," the State Department said. "The United States and New Zealand agreed that climate change was a pressing issue that requires a global solution," the State Department added.
 
 
U.S. Climate Action Report 2002 
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In this U.S. Climate Action Report, the United States provides its third formal national communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as envisioned under Articles 4 and 12 of the Convention. The U.S. describes its national circumstances, identifies existing and planned policies and measures, indicates future trends in greenhouse gas emissions, outlines expected impacts and adaptation measures, and provides information on financial resources, technology transfer, research, and systematic observations.
 
U.S. Climate Action Report 2002  
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Third National Communication of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
 
 
U.S. Climate Agency to Host Conference for Americas on Satellite Data 
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A conference targeted at all users in the Americas of satellite data collected by the United States will be held December 9-13 in Miami, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has announced. The agency said that during the next several years, the satellite system operated by NOAA will undergo significant changes and technological improvements. The purpose of the conference is to begin preparing all users for these upcoming changes. (15KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Climate Change Research and Technology Progress Outlined 
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In a letter to President Bush, Secretary of Commerce Don Evans and Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham submitted a progress update on federal climate change science and technology programs. The update, from the cabinet level Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration, jointly chaired by Evans and Abraham, outlines steps taken in four key areas: federal climate research, technology development, voluntary emissions reduction, and collaborative international activities.
 
 
U.S. Climate Report Says Protecting Economy Has High Priority 
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Study links human actions to global warming. (115KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Emissions Inventory - 2002 
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Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000. Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. This current inventory adheres to both (1) a comprehensive and detailed methodology for estimating sources and sinks of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and (2) a common and consistent mechanism that enables signatory countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to compare the relative contribution of different emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. Moreover, systematically and consistently estimating national and international emissions is a prerequisite for accounting for reductions and evaluating mitigation strategies.
 
 
U.S. Expresses Support of Delhi Declaration on Climate Change 
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In a closing statement November 1 at the end of United Nations-sponsored talks in New Delhi on climate change, the head of the U.S. delegation, Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs Paula Dobriansky, expressed support for the conference declaration.
 
 
U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory: In Brief 
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The "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks" provides important information about greenhouse gases, quantifies how much of each gas was emitted into the atmosphere, and describes some of the effects of these emissions on the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory Program has developed extensive technical expertise, internationally recognized analytical methodologies, and one of the most rigorous management systems in the world for estimation, documentation, and evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for all source categories. (2.2MB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Is Committed to Combating Global Climate Change 
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U.S. Ambassador Minikes' statement to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Permanent Council in Vienna March 7, "U.S. efforts compare very favorably to those of the EU, Japan and Canada. Reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent over the next ten years is comparable to the average progress that nations participating in the Kyoto protocol are projected to achieve¿the United States is in the front ranks of nations committed to combating global climate change." (16KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Official Says Innovative Programs are Needed to Meet World's Energy Demands 
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A senior US official at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) said August 28 [2002] that the United States strongly supports the use of renewable energy sources to bring energy services to people who now have no access, but opposes setting global targets for renewable energy. (18KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Officials Seek Real Development Results at Johannesburg Summit 
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A U.S. delegation, led by Secretary of State Colin Powell, joins those from over 170 countries participating in the environment and development summit being held in Johannesburg, South Africa, August 26 to September 4. The delegations, many led by heads of government, are set to finalize a new global implementation plan to accelerate sustainable development and launch a series of innovative partnership activities at the regional, national and international level. (20KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Will Be Active Partner in Upcoming Climate Change Talks 
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The United States will be "very active" in the talks on climate change beginning October 23 in New Delhi, but will play a "low key role" in discussions relating to the Kyoto Protocol and its implementation, according to Harlan Watson, senior U.S. climate negotiator and a leading member of the U.S. State Department delegation to the talks. The meeting is the Eighth Conference of the Parties (COP-8) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
 
 
U.S., Australia Establish Climate Research Site 
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Darwin will be newest Atmospheric Radiation Measurement facility. On July 30, 2002, the United States and Australia will formally commission a new site to monitor severe weather conditions, such as drought and monsoons, in Darwin, Australia, according to a US Department of Energy statement. The Darwin facility will be part of the global Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, enabling scientists to collect data critical for computer models that accurately simulate climate change. (23KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S.-India Joint Statement on Climate Change: Statement on the Visit of Mr. Harlan Watson, U.S. Climate Change Negotiator and Special Representative 
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Mr. Harlan Watson, U.S. Senior Climate Change Negotiator and Special Representative, visited New Delhi on April 29-30, 2002. He called on Minister of Power, Mr. Suresh Prabhu, and Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, and met senior officials from Ministries of Environment and Forests, Power, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Non-Conventional Energy Sources and External Affairs. (75KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S.-Italy Bilateral "Joint Climate Change Research Meeting" 
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The United States and Italy convened a bilateral "Joint Climate Change Research Meeting" in Rome on January 22-23, 2002, following upon the July 19, 2001 pledge of President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi to undertake joint research on climate change. This pledge recognized the need to draw on sound science and the power of technology to reduce the uncertainty associated with future global climate and environmental change. (62KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S.-Japan High-Level Consultations Working Groups 
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A statement from Dr. Harlan Watson, Senior Negotiator and Special Representative, following the second meetings of the U.S.-Japan High-Level Consultations Working Groups on Climate Change Science and Technology and on Developing Countries, February 25-26, 2002. These meetings were conducted under the June 30, 2001 agreement of President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to undertake "high-level U.S.-Japan government-to-government consultations to explore common ground and areas for common action on climate change." (36KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S.-Mexico Climate Change Related Programs 
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Summary of U.S. Federal Agency programs and interests in climate change research and technology and related areas with Mexico.
 
 
UN Conference on Global Warming - COP-8 
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Eighth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention. According to a September 30, 2002 United Nations press release, delegates will use the meeting -- known officially as the Eighth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention -- to prepare for the entry into force of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The delegates will also focus on key concerns of developing countries, such as how to cope with the expected impacts of climate change.
 
 
Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., Statement for the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation  
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Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere Lautenbacher testified on May 1 before the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee. He testified on the President's FY 2003 NOAA Budget Request. Acting Chair Ron Wyden and Sen. Olympia Snowe asked Under Secretary Lautenbacher about Pacific Coast groundfish, Klamath Basin, court-ordered Northeast fisheries restrictions, the Administration Clean Skies and Climate Change Research Initiatives, and other issues. (124KB PDF file)
 
 
United States Announces Dr. Susan Solomon (NOAA) as Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I  
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The United States announces its nomination of Dr. Susan Solomon of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as Co-Chair of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I, and its support of Dr. Rajendra K. Pachauri, the candidate proposed by the government of India, as Panel Chairman. (23KB PDF file)
 
 
US Energy Department Pursues Technological Answers to Climate Change 
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Hydrogen fuel cells, carbon sequestration, expanded nuclear energy studied. U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham has outlined three areas of research into technologies that may reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change. Abraham spoke December 3 at a Washington meeting of more than 1,300 scientists and experts from 30 countries, assembled to assess the U.S. climate change research strategy.
 
 
US Official Calls for Integrated Global Climate Observing System  
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Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has called for a fully implemented global satellite observing system for climate that will provide the tools needed to take "the pulse of the planet." In this June 11th statement to the Executive Council of the World Meteorological Organization, Adm. Lautenbacher also called for open sharing of data among nations. (35KB PDF file)
 
 
US-Australia Climate Action Partnership Moves Forward 
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The Federal Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Dr David Kemp, met in Washington on July 9th with Dr Paula Dobriansky, US Undersecretary of State, to discuss the Australia-US Climate Action Partnership. Dr Kemp and Dr Dobriansky announced the first set of cooperative projects to be implemented under the Partnership. The program includes 19 projects in the following areas: climate change science and monitoring; renewable and reduced emission stationary energy technologies; engagement with business on technology development, and policy design and implementation; capacity building in developing countries; and greenhouse accounting in the forestry and agriculture sectors. (137KB PDF file)
 
 
US-India Technology Cooperation on Global Climate Change 
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A new model for partnership between developed and developing countries worldwide is evolving to address climate change concerns. The US-India Technology Cooperation on Global Climate Change side event on October 31st at the UNFCCC COP-8 provides an important forum to highlight US-India collaboration on protecting the global environment. (181KB PDF file)
 
 
Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases 2000 
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Title XVI, Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to establish a mechanism for "the voluntary collection and reporting of information on¿annual reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon fixation achieved through any measures¿" This publication summarizes data reported for 2000, the seventh year of data collection for the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. (1.4MB PDF file)
 
 
World Bank: Russia Ends Production of Ozone Depleting Substances 
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The World Bank announced August 6 that $17.3 million will be paid to compensate seven Russian enterprises that have ceased producing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons, the most potent substances found to deplete Earth's ozone layer. (16KB PDF file)
 
 
2001 
Agency Data Sets Related to Global Change: Newly Available in 2000 
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This fourth of a series of yearly publications represents another important step in the interagency process of making the data and information related to the Global Change Research Program available.
 
 
Climate Change Science - An Analysis of Some Key Questions 
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The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity. The committee was made up of 11 of the nation's top climate scientists, including seven members of the National Academy of Sciences, one of whom is a Nobel Prize winner.
 
 
Closing Statement to the Seventh Session of the Conference of Parties (COP-7) 
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Closing statement by Paula J. Dobriansky (US Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs) to the Seventh Session of the Conference of Parties (COP-7) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Marrakech, Morocco, 9 November 2001 (72KB PDF file)
 
 
Confronting Global Challenges 
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Remarks by Paula J. Dobriansky (US Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs) to a National Foreign Policy Conference for Leaders of Nongovernmental Organization, Washington, DC, 26 October 2001. (122KB PDF file)
 
 
Current United States Actions to Address Climate Change 
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The President directed a Cabinet-level Working Group to review U.S. climate change policy. The Working Group produced this report containing its initial findings, including (1) summaries of current U.S. actions; (2) an analysis of the Kyoto Protocol; and (3) proposals to advance the science, advance technologies, and create partnerships in the Western Hemisphere and throughout the world to address climate change.
 
 
Delivering Kyoto: Can Europe Do It? Political, Industrial and Environmental Dimensions  
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Remarks by Dr. Harlan L. Watson to The Royal Institute of International Affairs Conference, 2 October 2001 (99KB PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis - Summary for Policymakers 
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Over 150 delegates from around 100 governments met in Shanghai, China from 17-20 January to consider the Working Group I contribution to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. The full report, which runs over 1000 pages, is the work of 123 Lead Authors from around the world. They in turn drew on 516 Contributing Authors. The report went through extensive review by experts and governments. The full report is published by Cambridge University Press. (330Kb PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Working Group II Third Assessment Report, Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability - Summary for Policymakers 
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This report assesses the sensitivity, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change, and the potential consequences of climate change. The full report is published by Cambridge University Press. (157Kb PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Working Group III Third Assessment Report, Mitigation of Climate Change (Summary for Policymakers) 
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This report assess the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of the mitigation of climate change. The full report is published by Cambridge University Press. (112Kb PDF file)
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 2002 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council. Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 2002. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented. A printed copy of this publication can be obtained without charge by submitting a request to GCRIO (see contact information at bottom of page); or by using our on-line document request form.
 
 
Remarks at the Seventh Session of the Conference of Parties (COP-7) 
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Remarks by Paula J. Dobriansky (US Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs) to the Seventh Session of the Conference of Parties (COP-7) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Marrakech, Morocco, 7 November 2001 (66KB PDF file)
 
 
Speech to the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
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Speech by Larry Lindsey, Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 3 May 2001 (118KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Climate Change Research Initiative / U.S. Climate Change Technology Initiative 
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The President announced his first set of actions implementing initiatives to advance the science of climate change, to spur technological innovation, and to promote cooperation in the Western Hemisphere and beyond.
 
 
U.S. National Energy Policy 
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A White House National Energy Policy Development Group developed this national energy policy to bring together business, government, local communities and citizens to promote dependable, affordable and environmentally sound energy for the future. The May 2001 report envisions a comprehensive long-term strategy that uses leading edge technology to produce an integrated energy, environmental and economic policy.
 
 
U.S. Position on Climate Change 
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Remarks by Dr. Harlan L. Watson to the Fundacion Gas Natural and Spain's Ministry of Environment at the International Seminar on "Climate Change: International Agreements and Mitigation Alternatives," 29 November 2001 (104KB PDF file)
 
 
US Senate Hearing on Climate Change Technology and Policy Options, 10 July 2001 
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Testimony of David L. Evans, Assistant Administrator, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration before the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation (10 July 2001).
 
 
White House Recommendations on Energy Conservation 
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The White House released a fact sheet May 12 explaining recommendations to improve and expand energy conservation initiatives. The recommendations are announced just as the Bush administration prepares to release a comprehensive new energy policy, coming from the National Energy Policy Development Group led by Vice President Cheney. (117KB PDF file)
 
 
2000 
1999 - Newly Available Agency Data Sets that Are Significantly Global Change Related 
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Since its inception, the U.S. Global Change Research Program has had the policy of full and open data availability. This policy has already been implemented not only through the participating agencies but through many inter-agency mechanisms such as public
 
 
CONSEQUENCES: The Nature and Implications of Environmental Change 
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El Niño and the Science of Climate Prediction; The Great El Niño of of 1997 and 1998: Impacts on Precipitation and Temperature; The Application of Climate Information; The Extreme Weather Events of 1997 and 1998; Beyond Kyoto: Toward a Technology Greenhouse Strategy; From A Carbon Economy To A Mixed Economy: A Global Opportunity; The Carbon Cycle, Climate, and the Long-Term Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning; The Case of the Missing Songbirds; Do We Still Need Nature? The Importance of Biodiversity; Ending Hunger: Current Status and Future Prospects; Impacts of Introduced Species in the United States; Population Policy: Consensus and Challenges; Remembrance Of Things Past: Greenhouse Lessons From The Geologic Record; How Bountiful Are Ocean Fisheries?; The Sun And Climate; The Environment Since 1970; Climate Models: How Reliable Are Their Predictions; Global and U.S. National Population Trends; Impacts of a Projected Depletion of the Ozone Layer; Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food Supply; Trends in U.S. Climate During the Twentieth Century; America's Water Supply: Status and Prospects for the Future; Past and Present Land Use and Land Cover in the U.S.A.
 
 
Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change & Environmental Forecasting: Strategic Plan for 2001-2005 
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The Center is the focal point in the DOT of expertise on transportation and climate change. Through strategic research, policy analysis, partnerships and outreach, the Center creates comprehensive and multi-modal approaches to reduce transportation-related greenhouse gases and to mitigate the effects of global climate change on the transportation network.
 
 
DOE Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 2001 
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The Annual Energy Outlook 2001 presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The projections are based on results from EIA¿s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: Interim Summary - August 2000  
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The latest full assessment report on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion is that of November, 1998. This Interim Summary is an update on recent findings. Special attention has been paid to interactions between ozone depletion and climate change. Potential interactions are indicated within the various sections.
 
 
Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (17 May 2000)  
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The hearing on the Science of Global Warming focused on the scientific facts behind global climate change. Witnesses consisted of several experts on climate and atmospheric science involved with the administration, federal agencies, and academic and international research institutions. While the expert testimony covered several different themes within climate change science, a few key issues were stressed by all of the witnesses as conventional wisdom accepted by an overwhelming majority of the scientific community.
 
 
Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (18 July 2000)  
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A national assessment of the potential impacts of climate change was called for in the 1990 legislation that established the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). To respond to this charge, the USGCRP began the National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change in 1997 by initiating a series of 20 workshops around the country to identify the critical interfaces between climate change, the environment, and society. A draft report was released for public review on June 12. The July 18th hearing was to hear testimony on the draft report.
 
 
Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (21 September 2000) 
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This hearing follows two others--one examining the science behind global warming as a means of defining the issue of climate change (17 May 2000) and the other addressing the National Assessment Report, Climate Change Impacts on the United States (18 July 2000). This current hearing examines a few of the many solutions or approaches to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
 
 
Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1998 
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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prepares the official U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks to comply with existing commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). (2.1MB PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Special Report - Emissions Scenarios (Summary for Policymakers) 
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The set of scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) is based on an extensive assessment of the literature, sex alternative modeling approaches, and an "open process' that solicited wide participation and feedback from many groups and individuals. The SRES scenarios include the range of emissions of all relevant species of greenhouse gases and sulfur and their driving forces. (1.2 MB PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Special Report - Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer (Summary for Policymakers) 
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The report addresses the technology transfer problem in the context of climate change while emphasizing the sustainable development perspective. (331KB PDF file)
 
 
IPCC Special Report Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 
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This Special Report discusses the global carbon cycle and how different land use and forestry activities currently affect standing carbon stocks and emissions of greenhouse gases. It also looks forward and examines future carbon uptake and emissions that may result from employing varying definitional scenarios and carbon accounting strategies, linked to the Kyoto Protocol, within the forestry and land-use sectors.
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 2001 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council. Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 2001. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented. A printed copy of this publication can be obtained without chargeby submitting a request to GCRIO (see contact information at bottom of page); or by using our on-line document request form.
 
 
Potential Health Impacts of Climate Variability and Change for the United States: Executive Summary of the Report of the Health Sector of the U.S. National Assessment 
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As part of a congressionally mandated national study of the impacts of climate variability and change in the United States, the authors assessed the potential impacts that projected changes in climate (based on modeled data developed for the national study) might have on a limited number of health outcomes that are associated with weather and/or climate.
 
 
Preparing for a Changing Climate: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (Great Lakes Overview) 
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This report summarizes the methods, findings, and recommendations from the Great Lakes Regional Assessment Team regarding the potential impacts of future climate change and variability in the Great Lakes region. It complements the national overview report that was prepared by the National Assessment Synthesis Team (NAST) as part of the National Assessment of Climate Change. The report is intended for use by federal, state, and local government officials and by people in their roles as US citizens, employees, and residents of the community. The report focuses on the years 2030 and 2090. These two times occur approximately 30 years before and after the time when atmospheric carbon dioxide is expected to have doubled from its current value. (7.4MB PDF file)
 
 
Terrestrial Sequestration Program: Capture and Storage of Carbon in Terrestrial Ecosystems 
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The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy and Office of Science are jointly carrying out research on the capture and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The goal of the program, which is managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options for offsetting the projected growth in carbon dioxide emissions.
 
 
U.S. Country Studies Program Final Reports 
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The countries participating in the USCSP have produced summary reports for the sectors they studied (GHG Emissions Inventory; Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; and GHG Mitigation Options). Countries for which electronic versions are currently available are Bulgaria, Ethiopia, Fiji, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Uganda, Ukraine, and Uruguay.
 
click to follow link (in new window)http://www.gcrio.org/CSP/finalrpt.html
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Scenarios for Climate Variability and Change 
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Climate provides the context for the environment and for many human activities - changes in the climate will thus have consequences for the environment and for human activities. While solar radiation is the primary energy source for maintaining the Earth's temperature, the atmospheric concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and other gases determine the intensity of the natural greenhouse effect that currently keeps the Earth's surface temperature at about 58°F (14°C). Without this natural greenhouse effect, the Earth's surface temperature would be about 0°F (about -18°C), a temperature that would make the Earth uninhabitable for life as we know it.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Agriculture 
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It is likely that climate changes and atmospheric CO2 levels, as defined by the scenarios examined in this Assessment, will not imperil crop production in the US during the 21st century. The Assessment found that, at the national level, productivity of many major crops increased. Crops showing generally positive results include cotton, corn for grain and silage, soybeans, sorghum, barley, sugar beets, and citrus fruits. Pastures also showed increased productivity. For other crops including wheat, rice, oats, hay, sugar cane, potatoes, and tomatoes, yields are projected to increase under some conditions and decline under others.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Alaska 
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Spanning an area nearly a fifth the size of the entire lower 48 states, Alaska includes extreme physical, climatic, and ecological diversity in its rainforests, mountain glaciers, boreal spruce forest, tundra, peatlands, and meadows. Lightly populated and growing about 1.5% per year, Alaska has the nation's highest median household income, with an economy dominated by government and natural resources. In contrast to other regions, the most severe environmental stresses in Alaska at present are already climate-related. Recent warming has been accompanied by several decades of thawing in discontinuous permafrost, which is present in most of central and southern Alaska, causing increased ground subsidence, erosion, landslides, and disruption and damage to forests, buildings, and infrastructure. Sea ice off the Alaskan coast is retreating (by 14% since 1978) and thinning (by 40% since the 1960s), with widespread effects on marine ecosystems, coastal climate, human settlements, and subsistence activities.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Coastal and Marine 
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The US has over 95,000 miles of coastline and approximately 3.4 million square miles of ocean within its territorial sea, all of which provide a wide range of essential goods and services to human systems. Coastal and marine ecosystems support diverse and important fisheries throughout the nation's waters, hold vast storehouses of biological diversity, and provide unparalleled recreational opportunities. Some 53% of the total US population lives on the 17% of land in the coastal zone, and these areas become more crowded every year. Demands on coastal and marine resources are rapidly increasing, and as coastal areas become more developed, the vulnerability of human settlements to hurricanes, storm surges, and flooding events also increases. Coastal and marine environments are intrinsically linked to climate in many ways. The ocean is an important distributor of the planet's heat, and this distribution could be strongly influenced by changes in global climate. Sea-level rise is projected to accelerate in the 21st century, with dramatic impacts in those regions where subsidence and erosion problems already exist.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Forests 
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Forests cover nearly one-third of the US, providing wildlife habitat, clean air and water, cultural and aesthetic values, carbon storage, recreational opportunities such as hiking, camping, fishing, and autumn leaf tours, and products that can be harvested such as timber, pulpwood, fuelwood, wild game, ferns, mushrooms, and berries. This wealth depends on forest biodiversity-the variety of plants, animals, and microbe species,-and forest functioning-water flow, nutrient cycling, and productivity. These aspects of forests are strongly influenced by climate and human land use.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Great Plains 
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The Great Plains produces much of the nation's grain, meat, and fiber, and in addition provides recreation, wildlife habitat, and water resources. Though more rural than the rest of the United States, the urban areas of the Great Plains provide housing and jobs for two-thirds of the people of the Great Plains. Soil organic matter is a major resource of the Great Plains as it provides improved soil water retention, soil fertility, and the long-term storage of carbon.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Human Health 
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Projections of the extent and direction of the potential health impacts of climate variability and change are extremely difficult to make because of the many confounding and poorly understood factors associated with potential health outcomes, population vulnerability, and adaptation. In fact, the relationship between weather and specific health outcomes is understood for a relatively small number of diseases, with few quantitative models available for analysis. The costs, benefits and availability of resources to address adaptation measures also require evaluation. Research aimed at filling the priority knowledge gaps identified in this assessment would allow for more quantitative assessments in the future.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Islands 
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This section deals with the US-affiliated islands of the Caribbean and Pacific. Included are Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean and the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau in the Pacific. The latter three are independent states in free association with the United States. Hawaii became the 50th state of the US in 1959. The Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa are US territories. The Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico are commonwealths.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Midwestern United States 
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The Midwest is characterized by farming, manufacturing, and forestry. The Great Lakes form the world's largest freshwater lake system, providing a major recreation area as well as a regional water transportation system and access to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway. The region encompasses the headwaters and upper basin of the Mississippi River and most of the length of the Ohio River, both critical water sources and means of industrial transportation providing an outlet to the Gulf of Mexico. The Midwest contains some of the richest farmland in the world and produces most of the nation's corn and soybeans. It also has important metropolitan centers, including Chicago and Detroit. The largest urban areas in the region are found along the Great Lakes and major rivers. The 'North Woods' are a large source of forestry products and have the advantage of being situated near the Great Lakes, providing for easy transportation.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Native Peoples 
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Native peoples, including American Indians and the indigenous peoples of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Pacific and Caribbean Islands, currently comprise almost 1% of the US population. Formal tribal enrollments total approximately two million individuals, more than half of whom live on or adjacent to hundreds of reservations throughout the country, while the rest live in cities, suburbs, and small rural communities outside the boundaries of reservations. The federal government recognizes the unique status of more than 565 tribal and Alaska Native governments as 'domestic dependent nations.' The relationships between tribes and the federal government are determined by treaties, executive orders, tribal legislation, acts of Congress, and decisions of the federal courts. These actions cover a range of issues that will be important in adapting to climate change, from responsibilities and governance to use and maintenance of land and water resources.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Northeastern United States 
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The Northeast is characterized by diverse waterways, extensive shorelines, and a varied landscape in which weather and the physical climate are dominant variables. The contrasts, from mountain vistas and extensive forests to one of the most densely populated corridors in the US, are noteworthy. The Northeast includes the largest financial market in the world (New York City), the nation's most productive non-irrigated agricultural county (Lancaster, PA), and the largest estuarine region (the Chesapeake Bay) in the US. The Northeast is dominated by managed vegetation, with much of the landscape covered by a mosaic of farmland and forest. The varied physical setting of the Northeast is matched by its highly diversified economy and by the character of its human populations. The majority of the population is concentrated in the coastal plain and piedmont regions, and within major urban areas. The economic activities within the region range from agriculture to resource extraction (forestry, fisheries, and mining), to major service industries highly dependent on communication and travel, to recreation and tourism, to manufacturing and transportation of industrial goods and materials. Assessment of the impacts of climate change is based on observed climate trends, climate simulations, and the importance of past extreme weather events.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Pacific Northwest 
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The Northwest, which includes the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, has a great diversity of resources and ecosystems, including spectacular forests containing some of the world's largest trees; abrupt topography that generates sharp changes in climate and ecosystems over short distances; mountain and marine environments in close proximity, making for strong reciprocal influences between terrestrial and aquatic environments; and nearly all the volcanoes and glaciers in the contiguous US. The region has seen several decades of rapid population and economic growth, with population nearly doubling since 1970, a growth rate almost twice the national average. The same environmental attractions that draw people and investment to the region are increasingly stressed by the region's rapid development. The consequences include loss of old-growth forests, wetlands, and native grass and steppe communities, increasing urban air pollution, extreme reduction of salmon runs, and increasing numbers of threatened and endangered species. Climate change and its impacts will interact with these existing stresses in the region.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Socioeconomoic Context 
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It is obvious, from history and everyday observation, that weather and climate can have impacts on people. Human impacts can arise from weather and climate events at many scales: from individual extreme events such as hurricanes or ice storms; from anomalous seasons such as an unusually cold winter or dry summer; or from multi-year departures from normal climate conditions, such as the drought of the 1930s.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Southeastern United States 
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The Southeast "sunbelt" is a rapidly growing region with a population increase of 32% between 1970 and 1990. Much of this growth occurred in coastal counties, which are projected to grow another 41% between 2000 and 2025. The number of farms in the region decreased 80% between 1930 and 1997 as the urban population expanded, but the Southeast still produces roughly one quarter of US agricultural crops. The Southeast has become America's 'woodbasket,' producing about half of America's timber supplies. The region also produces a large portion of the nation's fish, poultry, tobacco, oil, coal, and natural gas. Prior to European settlement, the landscape was primarily forests, grasslands, and wetlands. Most of the native forests were converted to managed forests and agricultural lands by 1920. Although much of the landscape has been altered, a wide range of ecosystem types exists and overall species diversity is high.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Vegetation and Biogeochemical Cycles 
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Ecosystems are communities of plants and animals and the physical environment in which they exist. Ecologists often categorize ecosystems by their dominant vegetation - the deciduous broad-leafed forest ecosystems of New England, the short-grass prairie ecosystems of the Great Plains, the desert ecosystems of the Southwest. Concerns for continued ecosystem health and performance stem from two primary issues. Ecosystems of all types, from the most natural to the most extensively managed, produce a variety of goods and services that benefit humans.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Water Resources 
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Water supply conditions in all regions and sectors in the US are likely to be affected by climate change, either through increased demands associated with higher temperatures, or changes in precipitation and runoff patterns. Water sector concerns include effects on ecosystems, particularly aquatic systems such as lakes, streams, wetlands, and estuaries. Although competition for water supplies is extremely intense, particularly in the western US, substantial ability to adjust to changing demands for water exists in the current water management system. It is not known whether the effects of climate change will require dramatic changes in infrastructure to control flooding and provide reliable water supplies during drought. However, it is known that precipitation and temperature changes are already increasing runoff volumes and changing seasonal availability of water supply, and that these changes are likely to be more dramatic in the future.
 
 
US National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - 2000 - Western United States 
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The West is characterized by variable climate, diverse topography and ecosystems, an increasing human population, and a rapidly growing and changing economy. Western landscapes range from the coastal areas of California, to the deserts of the Southwest, to the alpine tundra of the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Since 1950, the region's population has quadrupled, with most people now living in urban areas. The economy of the West has been transformed from one dominated by agriculture and resource extraction to one dominated by government, manufacturing, and services. National parks attract tourists from around the world. The region has a slightly greater share of its economy in sectors that are sensitive to climate than the nation as a whole; these include agriculture, mining, construction, and tourism, which currently represent one-eighth of the region's economy.
 
 
Water: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change for the Water Resources of the United States 
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New report suggests that climate change may have serious impacts on national water resources. Latest in a series of reports from the U.S. National Assessment predicts changes in runoff, rising sea levels, and increased risks of flooding. (1.8MB PDF file)
 
 
1999 
Climate Change: Mitigation, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Developing and Transition Countries  
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The countries participating in the USCSP have produced summary reports for the sectors they studied (GHG Emissions Inventory; Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; and GHG Mitigation Options). Countries for which electronic versions are currently available are Bulgaria, Ethiopia, Fiji, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Uganda, Ukraine, and Uruguay.
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1999 Interim Summary 
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The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Assessment Panel on the Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion produced this interim summary. The assessment is given in seven sections: changes in ultraviolet radiation, effects on human and animal health, effects on terrestrial ecosystems, effects on aquatic ecosystems, effects on biogeochemical cycles, effects on air quality, and effects on materials.
 
 
Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (25 March 1999)  
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Oversight hearing to receive testimony on the economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
 
 
Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (24 March 1999)  
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Hearing on voluntary activities to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
 
 
Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (3 June 1999)  
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Hearing on S. 547, Credit for Voluntary Reductions Act. The Act would encourage voluntary reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by U.S. industries by promising those industries credits for the reductions they took if a mandatory program were ever adopted.
 
 
IPCC Special Report - Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (Summary for Policymakers) 
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This special report was prepared following a request from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The report considers all the gases and particles emitted by aircraft into the upper atmosphere and the role that they play in modifying the chemical properties of the atmosphere. It does not deal with the effects of engine emissions on local air quality near the surface.
 
 
Meeting the Challenge of Global Climate Change 
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April 1999 White House fact sheet released by the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, US Department of State
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 2000 US Global Change Research Program 
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Our Changing Planet: The FY 2000 US Global Change Research Program is a report to Congress supplementing the President's FY 2000 budget, pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990. The report describes the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP); outlines a perspective for global change research in the decade ahead and the changing vision for the research agenda; presents an implementation plan for the USGCRP in FY 2000, with a discussion of each of the Program Elements; outlines a FY 2000 initiative in Carbon Cycle Science; summarizes key USGCRP accomplishments in 1998; and provides a detailed view of the FY 2000 USGCRP budget, including FY 2000 program components and program highlights by agency.
 
 
Report of the International Workshop on Population-Poverty-Environment Linkages  
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In the 1990s, a series of global conferences succeeded in raising awareness of the challenges facing the world due to interactive linkages among population, increasing poverty and environmental degradation. These conferences ¿ the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, and the World Summit for Social Development (Social Summit) ¿ arrived at consensus on the actions required to bring about environmentally sustainable and equitable development. Since those conferences, the international community has continued to assess progress and to improve the translation of the general consensus guidelines into national and local action programs.
 
 
Synthesis of the Reports of the Scientific, Environmental Effects, and Technology and Economics Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocol - A Decade of Assessments for Decision Makers Regarding the Protection of the Ozone Layer: 1988-1999  
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This Synthesis Report was produced by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Secretariat for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Ozone Secretariat). The goals of the Report are twofold: (i) To synthesize the major 1998 findings and conclusions of the three Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocol, and (ii) to place this information in the context of the past decade over which assessments have been provided to the Parties to the Protocol. (765Kb pdf file)
 
 
U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan 
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This integrated carbon cycle research plan was prepared at the request of the Agencies of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and addresses oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial components of the carbon cycle.
 
 
U.S. Country Studies Home Page 
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Through the U.S. Country Studies Program, the U.S. Government has been providing technical and financial support to 56 developing countries and countries with economies in transition to assist them in conducting climate change studies. The studies have enabled these countries to develop inventories of their anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, assess their vulnerabilities to climate change, and evaluate response strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The program was announced by the President prior to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.
 
 
US/USIJI Fourth Report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  
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To help inform international discussion on the issue of joint implementation, the United States submitted this fourth report on the accomplishments of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In addition to the on-line version, copies of the complete US/USIJI Fourth Report are available without charge on CD and can be requested by e-mail: usiji@ee.doe.gov; by telephone +1 (202) 586-3288; or by fax +1 (202) 586-3485.
 
 
1998 
Climate Variability and Change in the Southwest: Impacts, Information Needs, and Issues for Policymaking 
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At the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy and other units at The University of Arizona organized and hosted the Southwest Regional Climate Change Symposium and Workshop in Tucson, Arizona, on September 3-5, 1997. The intent of the symposium and workshop was to bring together important stakeholders--representatives from the private sector, government agencies, educational institutions, and interested citizens--to determine the state-of-knowledge, information and research needs, and possible policy strategies related to the impacts of and responses to climate variability and change in the Southwest.
 
 
Elements of Change 1997 
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Elements of Change is a series of reports from the Aspen Global Change Institute's (AGCI) summer programs. The 1997 report addresses "Scaling From Site-Specific Observations to Global Model Grids" and "Planning for the U.S. National Assessment of the Cons
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion 1998 Assessment 
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The assessment presented in this special issue of Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology deals with environmental effects of ozone depletion. It was produced originally in a limited edition for governments, via the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The assessment is given in seven papers as follows: changes in ultraviolet radiation, effects on human and animal health, effects on aquatic ecosystems, effects on biogeochemical cycles, effects on air quality, and effects on materials.
 
 
Frequently Asked Questions about Stratospheric Ozone Depletion 
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These questions are extracted from the United Nations Environment Programme's publication entitled, Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires periodic assessments of available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information. These questions are found in the 1998 assessment of environmental effects.
 
 
Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (4 June 1998)  
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Hearing to receive the US Government Accounting Office's (GAO) preliminary comments on its review of the Administration's Climate Change Proposal and to hear the Administration's response to GAO's comments.
 
 
Kyoto Protocol 
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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and associated actions taken and decisions adopted by the Third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) (231KB PDF file)
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 1999 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council. Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 1999. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented.
 
 
1997 
Climate Action Report: 1997 Submission of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 
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The conclusions to be drawn from this report can be summarized in three parts: (1) climate change is a clearly defined problem and is well recognized at the highest levels in the US government; (2) the combined effort to address climate change are in excess of $2 billion; and (3) notwithstanding this effort, emissions continue to grow.
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion 1997 Interim Summary 
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This summary is the last one between the full assessments of 1994 and 1998 on environmental effects of ozone depletion. The aim is to keep the Parties to the Montreal Protocol informed about new scientific developments. Recent studies have confirmed many of the conclusions of the earlier assessments. In addition, several new findings have been reported. New concerns have been raised by record low ozone, and associated higher UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface, over populated areas of the Northern Hemisphere during late winter and early spring.
 
 
Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (17 July 1997)  
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Hearing to receive testimony on the science and economics of global climate change.
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 1998 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 1998. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented.
 
 
Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability (Summary for Policymakers)  
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This Special Report, which has been produced by Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), builds on the Working Group's contribution to the Second Assessment Report (SAR), and incorporates more recent information made available since mid-1995.
 
 
1996 
Education for Sustainability  
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The document contains recommendations on how to incorporate sustainability education into and beyond the classroom. The overarching goal is to infuse the concepts of sustainability into all learning from structured schooling in formal education settings to lifelong learning in non-formal programs.
 
 
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion 1996 Executive Summary 
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This United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) report comes between the Assessments of 1994 and 1998 on the Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. The Executive Summary presented here confirms previous research and presents new findings concerning: Ozone and UV changes; health effects of ozone depletion; and the effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as on biogeochemical cycles and air quality.
 
 
Geological Indicators of Rapid Environmental Change: An International Checklist 
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As a contribution to integrated environmental/ecological monitoring and state-of-the-environment reporting, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) through its Commission on Geological Sciences for Environmental Planning has developed the first version of a checklist of geoindicators. These have been compiled as tools for tracking changes in the dominantly abiotic components of forest, aquatic, desert, coastal, polar, mountain and other terrestrial ecosystems.
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 1997 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 1997. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented.
 
 
Program Guide to Federally Funded Environment and Natural Resources R&D 
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The Program Guide provides information on the types of research and development activities that are supported by Federal agencies in the area of environment and natural resources, the mechanisms used by agencies to select R&D recipients of Federal R&D dollars, and potential funding opportunities.
 
 
Technologies, Polices, and Measures for Mitigation Climate Change - IPCC Technical Paper I 
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This Technical Paper provides an overview and analysis of technologies and measures to limit and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to enhance GHG sinks under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The paper focuses on technologies and measures for the countries listed in Annex I of the FCCC, while noting information as appropriate for use by non- Annex I countries. Technologies and measures are examined over three time periods -- with a focus on the short term (present to 2010) and the medium term (2010-2020), but also including a discussion of longer-term (e.g., 2050) possibilities and opportunities.
 
 
1995 
Forum on Global Change Modeling 
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Report of a forum arranged by the Subcommittee on Global Change Research (SGCR) assessing the state of current progress in improving understanding of global change and providing direction for future research.
 
 
Interim Report on Climate Change Country Studies 
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Documents the significant achievements made by 21 of the 55 countries that are conducting climate change country studies with support from the U.S. Country Studies Program. The reports discuss methods and results for inventories of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, assessments of climate change vulnerability and adaptive responses, and evaluations of mitigation options to reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases.
 
 
Oslo Roundtable Conference on Sustainable Production and Consumption, Ministerial Session 
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A statement by Elizabeth Dowdeswell, Executive Director of the UNEP, at the Oslo Roundtable Conference on Sustainable Production and Consumption (8 Feb 1995).
 
 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 1996 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 1996. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented.
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Antarctic Ice Sheet 
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Because of Antarctica's potential importance, and the many processes by which it might contribute to sea level, our analysis of this ice sheet is somewhat more detailed than those employed by the previous EPA and IPCC assessments of future sea level rise. Studies not designed to forecast sea level in specific years, however, have employed several models at various levels of complexity. We briefly summarize some of those previous models.
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Climate Change 
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Given the concentrations of greenhouse gases and resulting radiative forcings during particular years, projections of sea level rise require two types of climatic information: (1) Estimates of the downward penetration of heat for calculating the thermal expansion of ocean water; and (2) estimates of polar air temperatures, water temperatures, sea ice, and precipitation changes for calculating the glacial contribution to sea level.
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases 
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This analysis is based on the IPCC assumptions for emissions and concentrations, as updated by Wigley and Raper (1992). That analysis considers seven greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, and HFC-134a) as well as three gases with important indirect effects on climate (SO2, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds). For all gases other than CFC-11, CFC-12, and SO2, we characterize (anthropogenic) emission rates through the year 2100 using lognormal distributions with the geometric means and standard deviations calculated from the six emission scenarios from IPCC (1992). For the two CFCs, we used the IPCC scenarios directly0; for SO2, we used only the medium scenario from Wigley and Raper (1992).
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Greenland Ice Sheet 
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If the Greenland Ice Sheet melted completely, sea level would rise 7.6 meters (Hollin and Barry 1979). Even with today's climate, the ice sheet is melting at a rate greater than the annual snowfall in places where the surface is within about fifteen hundred meters of sea level. This elevation, where melting and snowfall are equal, is known as the "equilibrium line." The ice sheet continues to exist because most of the ice sheet is above the equilibrium line.
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Introduction 
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In the last several years, a steady stream of reports has estimated that the rate of sea level rise is likely to accelerate in the next century (EPA 1983; NRC 1983; NRC 1985; IPCC 1990; Wigley and Raper 1992). As a result, coastal decision makers around the world have gradually begun to consider how to respond. In many cases, no immediate response is necessary, because the time required to implement a response is less than the time likely to pass before the sea rises significantly (NRC 1987).
 
 
Probability of Sea Level Rise - 1995 - Summary 
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The Earth's average surface temperature has risen approximately 0.6oC (1oF) in the last one hundred years, and the nine warmest years have all occurred since 1980.Many climatologists believe that increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases released by human activities are warming the Earth by a mechanism commonly known as the "greenhouse effect." Nevertheless, this warming effect appears to be partly offset by the cooling effect of sulfate aerosols, which reflect sunlight back into space.
 
 
Review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System 
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Results of a National Research Council review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program with specific focus on the NASA Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and Earth Observing System (EOS) programs in light of budgetary pressures.
 
 
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: A Focus on EPA's Research 
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The mission of EPA's Office of Research and Development includes identifying and quantifying the risks associated with stratospheric ozone depletion; working cooperatively with the private sector to catalyze development of safe alternative chemicals and technologies; and studying both natural and human-induced effects on the Earth's atmosphere.
 
 
Sustainable Development and Global Climate Change: Conflicts and Connections 
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Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Center for Environmental Information, Inc., 4-5 Dec 1995, Washington, D.C. Climate change scientists addressed the following topics: The Climate Change Phenomenon and Sustainability; Sustainability and Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Options; Sustainable Development and Climate Change: Economic Assessment: Sustainable Development and Climate Change: Science for Policy in the Face of Uncertainty.
 
 
1994 
Our Changing Planet - The FY 1995 US Global Change Research Program 
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An annual report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Our Changing Planet describes the US Global Change Research Program for FY 1995. Federal Agency activities and funding levels are presented.
 
 
U.S. Global Change Data and Information System Implementation Plan 
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A report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR), the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) Implementation Plan describes the coordinated effort being undertaken by participating federal agencies to implement the GCDIS.
 
 
1993 
Climate Change Action Plan 
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The Clinton Administration's Action Plan for meeting the twin challenges of responding to the threat of global environmental change while simultaneously strengthening the economy.
 
click to follow link (in new window)http://www.gcrio.org/USCCAP/toc.html
1991 
Policy Statements on Data Management for Global Change Research 
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The overall purpose of these policy statements is to facilitate full and open access to quality data for global change research. They were prepared in consonance with the goal of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and represent the U. S. Government's position on the access to global change research data.
 
 
1990 
U.S. Global Change Research Program Act of 1990 
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Complete text of Public Law 101-606, which establishes the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP).
 
 
No date available
Agency Data Sets Related to Global Change Newly Available in 2000: Atmosphere 
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This fourth of a series of yearly publications represents another important step in this interagency process of making the data and information related to the Global Change Research Program available. It is particularly needed at this time since the users of this data and information have expanded from being primarily researchers to being a full mix that also includes educators, those making assessments of potential effects of global change, the commercial world, and the public as well as policy makers at all levels. To help the user of this publication find the data in which they are most interested, the data has been separated into subject categories. This page lists available data sets concerning the Atmosphere category (Aerosols, Atmospheric chemistry, Climate, Clouds, Weather).
 
 
Agency Grants and Contracts (GCRIO) 
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U.S. Agency Grants and Contracts * Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Funding Programs * Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy * Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Grants and Contracts * Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Global Warming Financial Assistance * Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Grants and Fellowship Information * Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Center for Environmental Research and Quality Assurance Grants and Contracts * Geological Survey (USGS) Contracts and Grants Information * National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Grants and Contracts * National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Grants Information
 
 
Carbon Sequestration: Overview and Summary of DOE Program Plans (draft) 
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The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. About 85% of U.S. energy is derived from fossil fuels, and continued reliance by the U.S. - and the world - is forecast well into the 21st century. At the same time, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has stated that '. . . the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernable human influence on global climate.'
 
 
Climate Change - Mitigation, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Developing and Transition Countries 
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This report provides an overview of the work conducted by developing and transition countries participating in the U.S. Country Studies Program. Under this program, participating countries evaluated climate change mitigation options, assessed their vulnerability to climate change, identified methods for adapting to climate change, and developed plans for responding to climate change.
 
 
Common Questions About Climate Change  
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Answers some of the most commonly asked questions about climate change, including whether the Earth has warmed, which human activities are contributing to climate change, what further climatic changes are expected to occur, and what effects these changes may have on humans and the environment.
 
 
CSP Interim Report - Malawi 
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SUMMARY: Malawi is one of the countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under this Convention, parties to the Convention must communicate to the Conference of the Parties (COP) their national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of all greenhouse gases by sources and sinks using comparative methodologies. With financial assistance from the United States Country Studies Program (U.S.CSP) to address climate change, Malawi intends to develop a baseline for greenhouse gas data suitable for scientific understanding of the relationship between gas emissions and climate change. Additionally, Malawi will assess the vulnerability of important sectors (water, agriculture, and wildlife) to climate change impacts and recommend adaptation and mitigation measures. This report describes the four study elements of the country studies, i.e., specific objectives and methodologies that will be employed. Since this study has just been initiated, no results are reported but a description of the use into which the expected results will be put is given. The necessity to study the impacts of climate change on both the quantity and quality of water resources cannot be overemphasized. Although Malawi may be considered generally rich in water resources, the distribution is not even. Therefore there is a pressing need to adopt sound and sustainable management practices of water resources to avert the threat posed by changes in climate.
 
 
CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 
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SUMMARY: This paper reports the results of the crop vulnerability and adaptation element of Zimbabwe's country study. Global Climate Models (GCMs) and dynamic crop growth models were used to assess the potential effects of climate change on agriculture in Zimbabwe. These effects were estimated for maize, since maize is the most widely grown crop in Zimbabwe. Its growth is increasingly coming under stress due to high temperature and low rainfall conditions. Projected climate change causes simulated maize yields to decrease dramatically under dryland conditions in some regions (in some cases up to 30 percent), even under full irrigation conditions. The reduction in modeled maize yields are primarily attributed to temperature increases that shorten the crop growth period, particularly the grain-filling period. Broadly speaking, the duration of crop growth becomes shorter, thereby causing dramatic negative effects on yields. The simulated yield decreases in some regions are partially offset by the effect of increased CO2 on plant physiology. There are several potential adaptation strategies that may be used to offset the negative impacts of climate change on maize yields. These include switching to drought- tolerant small grains and maize varieties, and appropriate management practices. Some farmers might suffer because of relatively severe local climatic changes, while farmers in other areas might benefit through improved yields and/or higher prices as a result of favorable local climatic conditions. Rapid geographical shifts in the agricultural land base could disrupt rural communities and their associated infrastructure. More research is called for to generate technologies that equip farmers to adapt to the effects of climate change.
 
 
GCRIO Exemplary Service Award 
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"Dr. Global Change" is a reference service that assists domestic and international researchers, students, educators, resource managers, policymakers, and the general public in finding information and data relevant to global environmental change. Staff from the US Global Change Research Information Office at CIESIN (CIESIN implemented GCRIO at the time the award was made), along with staff from U.S. Government agencies, provides answers to questions related to climate change science. GCRIO provides access to data and information on climate change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources on behalf of the US Climate Change Science Program and its participating Federal Agencies.
 
 
Global Warming and Climate Change 
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A publication prepared by researchers in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University to explain the issue of global warming and climate change to a general audience. Issues addressed include: The science of global warming; the potential impacts of climate change, and the range of policy responses to the threat of climate change.
 
 
Selected Calendars of Conferences, Workshops, and Seminars 
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Selected Calendars of Conferences, Workshops, and Seminars Focusing on the Environment and Global Change * Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) Conference Calendar * American Public Power Association (APPA) Meetings/Events Calendar * Environment News Service Events Calendar * Geological Society of America Calendar of Scientific Meetings * Geotimes Events Calendar * IISD Linkages Climate Change Calendar * Open GIS Consortium Conference and Event Calendar * US Department of State/OES Calendar of International Events and Meetings * The World Bank Calendar of Environmental and Pollution Regulation Conferences
 
 
Stratospheric Ozone over the Arctic 
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What's happening to stratospheric ozone over the Arctic, and why? Is Arctic stratospheric ozone undergoing depletion? USGCRP Seminar, 14 July 2000 (255KB PDF file)
 
 
Text of a Letter from President Bush to Senators Hagel, Helms, Craig, and Roberts 
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"...My Administration takes the issue of global climate change very seriously...As you know, I oppose the Kyoto Protocol because it exempts 80 percent of the world, including major population centers such as China and India, from compliance, and would cause serious harm to the U.S. economy..."
 
 
U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan 
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The Carbon Cycle Science Plan (CCSP) presented in this document has several fundamental motivations. First, it is clear that the oceans and land ecosystems have responded in measurable ways to the atmospheric increase in carbon dioxide, but the associated mechanisms are still not well quantified. Second, the land and ocean sinks and sources appear to fluctuate naturally a great deal over time and space, and will likely continue to vary in ways that are still unknown. Third, to predict the behavior of Earth's climate system in the future, we must be able to understand the functioning of the carbon system and predict the evolution of atmospheric CO2. Finally, scientific progress over the past decade has enabled a new level of integrated understanding that is directly relevant to critical societal questions associated with the economic and environmental effects of forestry, agriculture, land use and energy use practices.
 
 
United States Record of Action to Address Climate Change Domestically 
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The U.S. Department of State reports that the United States achieved a 2.7 percent decline in greenhouse gas emissions in 2000, demonstrating the government's action to address the problem of climate change. The State Department released a fact sheet on U.S. actions to control emissions as an international meeting on climate change began in New Delhi October 23.
 
 

 

 

 


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